PO Box 72068 RPO Glenmore Landing Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2V 5H9

Brain Fog and Peripheral Neuropathy

Brain fog and peripheral neuropathy often occur together, and this co-occurrence can be due to several underlying mechanisms and contributing factors. Here’s an explanation of why brain fog might happen in people with peripheral neuropathy and what can be done to manage it:

Reasons for Brain Fog in Peripheral Neuropathy

Brain Fog and Peripheral Neuropathy
Image Source: CNA

Chronic Pain and Discomfort:

Peripheral neuropathy often involves chronic pain, which can be physically and mentally exhausting. Persistent pain can lead to poor sleep, increased stress, and difficulty concentrating, all contributing factors. It is commonly said that for people living with chronic pain 25% of the brain’s energy is used in processing of pain. While we couldn’t back up this number with research references, there is no doubt that chronic pain sometimes makes it hard for us to think.

Effective management of pain can improve sleep and reduce stress, both of which can alleviate the fog. This can include medications, physical therapy, and alternative treatments like acupuncture.

Sleep Disturbances:

Pain and discomfort from peripheral neuropathy can lead to insomnia or poor-quality sleep. Lack of restorative sleep is a common cause of cognitive issues, including brain fog. Just ask anyone who’s neuropathy has kept them up till the wee hours of the morning.

Improving sleep quality is crucial. Practices like maintaining a regular sleep schedule, creating a restful environment, and avoiding stimulants before bedtime can help.


Many medications prescribed to manage neuropathic pain, such as anticonvulsants (e.g., gabapentin) and antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline), can have side effects that include cognitive impairment and drowsiness that all contribute.

If medications are contributing to brain fog, a review with a healthcare provider can help. Sometimes adjusting the dosage or switching to different medications can reduce cognitive side effects.

Nutritional Deficiencies:

Some types of peripheral neuropathy are linked to nutritional deficiencies (e.g., vitamin B12 deficiency1), which can also affect cognitive function.

Addressing nutritional deficiencies through diet or supplements can improve overall health and cognitive function. For example, vitamin B12 supplementation can be crucial for those with deficiencies.

Stress and Anxiety:

Brain fog from stress: a hand with a fist in the air
Image Source: CNA

Chronic conditions often lead to increased stress and anxiety. Stress hormones like cortisol can affect brain function, leading to memory problems and difficulty concentrating2.

Techniques such as mindfulness, meditation, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help manage stress and anxiety, which in turn can improve cognitive function. Regular physical exercise can reduce stress as well as improve circulation, reduce pain, enhance mood, and improve sleep, all of which can help alleviate brain fog.

Underlying Conditions:

Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by systemic diseases such as diabetes, which itself can contribute to cognitive issues. High blood sugar levels, for example, can affect brain function3.

Proper management of conditions like diabetes, autoimmune diseases, or other systemic issues is essential for overall health and can reduce the impact of peripheral neuropathy and associated brain fog.

Mitochondrial Role:

Mitochondrial damage can contribute to brain fog. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, responsible for producing the energy necessary for cellular functions. When mitochondrial function is impaired, which may be tied to age related causes, it can lead to a host of problems, including cognitive issues such as brain fog. Depletion or dysfunction of mitochondria means cells, including those in the brain, don’t get enough energy to function optimally. This energy deficit can impair cognitive functions, leading to brain fog.

Mitochondria are also involved in managing oxidative stress. Dysfunctional mitochondria can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cells and tissues, including neurons, contributing to cognitive decline and brain fog.

Mitochondria are essential for the synthesis and regulation of neurotransmitters, the chemicals that transmit signals in the brain. Mitochondrial dysfunction can disrupt this process, leading to impaired communication between neurons and contributing to brain fog.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is often associated with increased inflammation. Chronic inflammation can affect brain function and is linked to various cognitive impairments, including brain fog.

    Addressing mitochondrial health through nutrition, exercise, stress management, and avoiding toxins can help improve cognitive function and reduce brain fog.

    Brain fog in peripheral neuropathy patients is often due to a combination of chronic pain, sleep disturbances, medication side effects, nutritional deficiencies, stress, and underlying conditions. Addressing these issues through a comprehensive approach involving pain management, lifestyle changes, nutritional support, and stress reduction can help mitigate brain fog and improve overall cognitive function. For persistent or severe issues, professional medical evaluation and treatment consult with healthcare providers for personalized management plans.

    Other CNA Resources:

    The mental strain from neuropathy often is as serious as the physical pain.

    You can’t see it, but it is there. CNA is here to listen.


    1. Low Vitamin B12 Levels: An Underestimated Cause Of Minimal Cognitive Impairment And Dementia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077099/
    2. What to Know about anxiety and brain fog https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/anxiety-and-brain-fog
    3. Diabetes and Brain Fog: There is a connection https://www.nkch.org/blog/diabetes-and-brain-health-theres-a-connection
    Share this article

    Subscribe to our newsletter

    Skip to content